Rapid Biodiversity Assessment GRID Sampling of the Maderas Cloud Forest on Ometepe Island, Nicaragua, July 2010

Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Falk Huettmann, Rebecca Thome, and Amy Milin, 2010. 1. EWHALE lab, Biology and Wildlife Dept. Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks. University, USA.
Publication_Date: 2010
Title:
Rapid Biodiversity Assessment GRID Sampling of the Maderas Cloud Forest on Ometepe Island, Nicaragua, July 2010
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Required element.
Other_Citation_Details:
NA
Online_Linkage: NA
Description:
Abstract:
This data set contains Rapid Biodiversity Sampling data from a GRID (5*5 geo-referenced sampling + 5 random plots). It includes raw count data for 273 bird observations of 19 coarsly identified bird species, monkey surveys (21 Manteled Howler and 3 Capuchin detections) and flowering plants from the 30 sampling plots (3m radius), and insects from four trapping webs (3m radius, 25 traps each; 44 different species), done June 24th til 26th 2010 at the Maderas vulcanoe cloud forest on Ometepe Island, Nicaragua (app. North 11.448570 latitude and west 85.528170 longitude; altitude 500-700 m). Plots are in the old rain forest on steep slope, and some being located near a public trail. All plot locations were photographed (sky, ground and habitat shots). All bird detections (visual and oral) carry a radial distance from the observer, and were collected according to DISTANCE Sampling point transect protocols. Respectively, a DISTANCE Sampling trapping web protocol, with a 3m radius and allowing for detectability correction in abundance estimates, was applied for ground-living insects. These data do not cover high detailed taxonomic information (and usually just follow basic but accurate descriptions).Each plot was visited three times according to the PRESENCE software to obtain occupancy estimates. In addition, cruising was done for obtaining alternative monkey abundance estiates. Of interest are additional sightings whie working on the GRID such as: Walking Stick insect, Landsnails, Landturtle, Boa Constrictor and Land crab (photos taken). All of these data can be data-mined using for instance freely available RandomForest, Distance Sampling and PRESENCE software packages. A more detailed biological analysis is coming forward, and will be published elsewhere. Comparable Biodiversity GRID data so far is available for over other regions (e.g. Nicaragua, Central Alaska, Costa Rica, Papua New-Guinea, Northern & Interior Alaska, Northeastern China and Russian Far East). Data from the other study sites are also available online. For details please contact authors.
Purpose:
These GRID data were collected in order to develop low cost rapid biodiversity assessment methods corrected for detectability. Data from this site are compatible with other GRID locations, where the same data were collected following an identical protocol. Findings from this study would allow to learn more about the state of biodiversity and multiple-species monitoring worldwide.
Supplemental_Information:
The sampling sites are geo-referenced. DISTANCE Sampling abundance estimates, PRESENCE occupancy estimates and Random Forests predictive modeling for such types of GRIDs were done for a master thesis (Nemitz 2008).For details, please contact authors.
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 20070806
Ending_Date: 20070824
Currentness_Reference:
Current for 2009
Status:
Progress: Required element.
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: None planned for this dataset
Spatial_Domain:
Description_of_Geographic_Extent:
Maderas vulcanoe Cloud Forest, Ometepe Island, Nicaragua
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: 85.528170
East_Bounding_Coordinate: 85.52817
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 11.44857
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 11.44857
Bounding_Altitudes:
Altitude_Minimum: 500.000
Altitude_Maximum: 700.000
Altitude_Distance_Units:
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Theme_Keyword: Biodiversity Monitoring
Theme_Keyword: GRID Sampling
Theme_Keyword: DISTANCE Sampling
Theme_Keyword: PRESENCE
Theme_Keyword: Occupancy
Theme_Keyword: Data Mining
Theme_Keyword: Predictive Modeling
Theme_Keyword: Multiple-Species Survey
Theme_Keyword: Biodiversity
Theme_Keyword: Nicaragua
Theme_Keyword: Maderas vulcanoe
Theme_Keyword: Cloud Forest
Theme_Keyword: Rain forest
Theme_Keyword: Mountains
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Place_Keyword: Central America
Place_Keyword: Nicaragua
Place_Keyword: Ometepe Island
Place_Keyword: Maderas vulcanoe
Taxonomy:
Keywords/Taxon:
Taxonomic_Keyword_Thesaurus:
None
Taxonomic_Keywords: collection
Taxonomic_Keywords: multiple species
Taxonomic_Keywords: single species
Taxonomic_Keywords: invertebrates
Taxonomic_Keywords: plants
Taxonomic_Keywords: vegetation
Taxonomic_Keywords: vertebrates
Taxonomic_Keywords: Walking Stick insect
Taxonomic_Keywords: Landsnails
Taxonomic_Keywords: Landturtle
Taxonomic_Keywords: Boa Constrictor
Taxonomic_Keywords: Land crab
Taxonomic_Keywords: Parrot
Taxonomic_Keywords: Flycatcher
Taxonomic_Keywords: Raptor
Taxonomic_Keywords: Banded Wren
Taxonomic_Keywords: Bird
Taxonomic_Keywords: Magpie Jay
Taxonomic_Keywords: Dove
Taxonomic_Keywords: Little wren
Taxonomic_Keywords: Magpie
Taxonomic_Keywords: Vulture
Taxonomic_Keywords: 'Brown head' Flycatcher
Taxonomic_Keywords: Swifts
Taxonomic_Keywords: Hummingbird
Taxonomic_Keywords: Big flycatcher
Taxonomic_Keywords: Guan
Taxonomic_Keywords: Parrot little
Taxonomic_Keywords: Parrot big
Taxonomic_Keywords: "Slim beak' flycatcher
Taxonomic_Keywords: Forest Pigeon
Taxonomic_Keywords: Big Beetle
Taxonomic_Keywords: Ant
Taxonomic_Keywords: Collembola
Taxonomic_Keywords: Little spider
Taxonomic_Keywords: Little ant
Taxonomic_Keywords: Black scarabidae
Taxonomic_Keywords: Spider
Taxonomic_Keywords: Big black ant
Taxonomic_Keywords: Big spider
Taxonomic_Keywords: Little black ant
Taxonomic_Keywords: Black thin beetle
Taxonomic_Keywords: Little beetle
Taxonomic_Keywords: Black ant medium
Taxonomic_Keywords: 'eintags fliege'
Taxonomic_Keywords: Medium spider
Taxonomic_Keywords: Big scarabidae
Taxonomic_Keywords: Long antenna collembola
Taxonomic_Keywords: Red ant
Taxonomic_Keywords: Big backswimmer
Taxonomic_Keywords: Beetle medium
Taxonomic_Keywords: Big collembola
Taxonomic_Keywords: Worm
Taxonomic_Keywords: Red beetle
Taxonomic_Keywords: Long antenna small beetle
Taxonomic_Keywords: Medium red beetle
Taxonomic_Keywords: Bedbug
Taxonomic_Keywords: Small grey beetle
Taxonomic_Keywords: Medium black ant
Taxonomic_Keywords: Medium ant
Taxonomic_Keywords: Mosquito
Taxonomic_Keywords: Medium size spider
Taxonomic_Keywords: Big black scarabidae
Taxonomic_Keywords: Medium size red beetle
Taxonomic_Keywords: Milliped
Taxonomic_Keywords: Small beetle
Taxonomic_Keywords: Thin scarabidae
Taxonomic_Keywords: Cricket-like bedbug
Taxonomic_Keywords: Little scarabidae
Taxonomic_Keywords: Tiny worm
Taxonomic_Keywords: Small ant
Taxonomic_Keywords: Small spider
Taxonomic_Keywords: Small round beetle
Taxonomic_Keywords: Black round beetles
Taxonomic_Keywords: Little worm
Taxonomic_System:
Classification_System/Authority:
Classification_System_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: ITIS (nonmatches are listed)
Publication_Date: Unknown
Title:
Required element.
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Required element.
Identifer:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Falk Huettmann, Rebecca Thome and Amy Milin
Contact_Organization: EWHALE lab
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical
Address: 419 Irving I
City: Fairbanks
State_or_Province: Alaska
Postal_Code: 99775
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 907 474 7882
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: fhuettmann@alaska.edu
Taxonomic_Procedures:
Birds were identified visually (or orally), and confirmed by binocular by FH. Monkeys were detected visually and orally
by all observers.
Taxonomic_Completeness:
complete for birds, incomplete for insects and plants (photos were taken)
Access_Constraints: The authors and EWHALE/UAF remain the owners of this dataset. However, this data can be distributed or utilized by interested parties.
Use_Constraints:
The authors and EWHALE/UAF remain the owners of this dataset. This data can be distributed or utilized by interested parties. However, it is important to interprete the data and findings in the context of the overall study and the methods outlined. Please refer to “Citation” for directions on how to cite when using the data.
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Falk Huettmann
Contact_Organization: EWHALE lab- Biology and Wildlife Dept., Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks
Contact_Address:
Address_Type:
Address: 419 IRVING I
City: Fairbanks
State_or_Province: Alaska
Postal_Code: 99775-7000
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 001 907 474 7882
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: fffh@uaf.edu
Data_Set_Credit:
Falk Huettmann, Rebecca Thome, and Amy Milin
Security_Information:
Security_Classification_System: NA
Security_Classification: Unclassified
Security_Handling_Description: NA
Native_Data_Set_Environment:
Excel sheet and notebook
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Dirk Nemitz
Publication_Date: 2008
Title:
An assessment of sampling detectability for global bioidversity monitoring: results from sampling GRIDs in different climatic regions, Master thesis 5 Dec 2008 (unpublished)
Edition: 1
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: document
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Goettingen
Publisher: University of Goettingen, MINC project
Other_Citation_Details:
This work was co-supervised between University of Goettingen and University of Alaska-Fairbanks
Analytical_Tool:
Analytical_Tool_Description:
Dirk Nemitz did an analysis of such data for his M.Sc. thesis, based on data mining, Random Forest and PRESENCE software, Money data were also analysed for abundance estimates. Details are available from the authors (or see cross reference for citation).
Tool_Access_Information:
Tool_Access_Instructions:
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Data_Quality_Information:
Attribute_Accuracy:
Attribute_Accuracy_Report:
Data were collected according to the GRID protocols, and as outlined in Nemitz (2008). In addition, sme money vocalizations were collected.
Logical_Consistency_Report:
Consistent methods were used, see GRID protocol in Nemitz (2008)
Completeness_Report:
Dataset is complete for July 2010
Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report:
The GPSwas used for location (latitude and longitude). It is assumed it is accurate to +- 10m.
Vertical_Positional_Accuracy:
Vertical_Positional_Accuracy_Report:
The GPSwas used for altitude (meter above ground). It is assumed it is accurate to +- 50m.
Lineage:
Methodology:
Methodology_Type: Field & Lab
Methodolgy_Identifier:
Methodolgy_Keyword_Thesaurus:
None
Methodology_Keyword: DISTANCE Sampling
Methodology_Keyword: PRESENCE / Occupancy
Methodology_Description:
BIODIVERSITY GRID For efficiency reasons a systematic sampling approach was chosen. First of all an equally spaced GRID was implemented: 25 points were arranged in five rows and five columns in order to cover a consistent area but also to have a known spatial neighbor relationship among all plots. The distance between plots was 100 m, resulting in a total GRID size of 500 m x 500 m. While the final GRID system ideally covers the globe systematically without intentional placement, for these initial studies the GRIDs were placed in a way that roughly half to two thirds of the plots fell inside a forested area, the remaining plots at the forest edge or inside the cultural landscape. This survey setup enables other studies on the same data set to make realistic and representative statements about fragmentation effects. The only exception is GRID in Barrow in northern Alaska, where naturally only one habitat type, arctic tundra, occurs. Additionally, five points were randomly placed within the GRID to be able to model the influence of random patterns on the results and their spatial relations (Figure 8). The coordinates of each plot were obtained from a regular hand-held GPS receiver and re-visited by using the “Go to” function. All plots as well as the path between them were marked with decomposing flagging tape to make recognition in the field easier. A simple schematic map was drawn by hand for each field work participant to ensure that plots are found when the GPS does not receive signals, as was often the case in dense forest settings. BUDGET CONSTRAINTS The biodiversity GRID is meant as a method for cost-efficient rapid biodiversity assessment that allows for an analysis of spatial relations as well. All methods involved have to work in relatively short time, with low costs and little demand of technological equipment. There is no objection to include more sophisticated methods in add-on protocols, but they are discouraged for the main protocol to keep the inhibition threshold for decision makers low. Trained taxonomists were not available, as they rarely are for many ecosystems. All notes regarding the observed species were made as precisely as possible, although most of the observers were not trained especially in tropical ornithology or entomology. Data collection followed the motto the more detail the better, but it was not intended to refuse data because of lacking taxonomic details. If the observer did not readily know the correct scientific name of a specimen, a common name or, in lack of knowledge of a common name, a short description was noted. This original field note is referred to as the “narrative name” of an observation respectively of a species. Such process is common when dealing with large numbers of species and in largely unexplored environments, where huge fractions of the biodiversity remains still unknown, or where appropriate taxonomic guide books are missing. This resulted in good abundance and occupancy estimates, but in less detailed taxonomic data. Such is the characteristic in rapid biodiversity assessments on shoestring budgets, which allow for a first impression and provide detailed information for deeper investigation if desired. This type of rapid assessment additionally serves as a pilot study for further assessments. In the present study the focus lies on spatial global coverage, instead of local detail. ANIMAL SPECIES DATA COLLECTION In the ideal case, the protocol should result not only in information about the presence or absence of species, but also in an estimate of population size. The DISTANCE sampling approach uses the concept of a detection function based on distance of the observed object from the observer to estimate population density. It plays a central role in this study and is used in a number of ways. At each of the 30 plots (25 systematic and 5 random), five minute point transect DISTANCE sampling counts for birds were conducted within 360 degrees. A short settle-in period of one minute was granted prior to counting to allow for the snapshot character of DISTANCE sampling, especially meeting the assumption that presence of the observer does not introduce bias by causing responsive movements of animals. Following common practice the point counts took place only in the morning between 5:30 and 10 am. Birds are known to show higher activity at this time, which generally increases detectability and maximizes inventory accuracy. Each bird seen or heard was noted, including an estimate of the radial distance from the observer. Double counts were avoided by the observer’s attention and the relatively short counting period. Observers decided to make two adjustments: - in study area on Sakhalin Island, Russia seabird observations were excluded from plot A1; - in study area in Barrow, Alaska the survey time was reduced from five to four minutes. The second method of DISTANCE sampling used was a trapping web. 17 pitfall traps with a diameter of 9 cm each were arranged in a DISTANCE sampling trapping web design to estimate ground-living insects. This sampling method is very labor-intensive and could not be implemented at all 30 plots given the short time period available. Thus, four of the plots were systematically selected to capture the general patterns of species and abundances within the GRID: B2, D2, B4 and D4 (underlined in Figure 8) to gather at least some information about ground-living insects. Trapping webs were usually checked every 24 hours; and records were taken every 48 hours. In between check dates the cups were emptied without recording to avoid correlation in time between trapping events, and obtain spatially independent results. Because of the low number of traps and more available work force it was decided to add a third circle of traps at 3 m from the centre in study areas in Russia, Papua New Guinea and Barrow, Alaska. This increased the total number of pitfall traps in these areas to 25. The third application of DISTANCE sampling was an add-on sampling protocol using DISTANCE sampling line transects, conducted at each of the 30 plots. Transects with a length of 10 m and traversing the plot at its centre were surveyed to estimate numbers of butterflies, amphibians and reptiles. DISTANCE sampling point counts for birds and trapping webs for ground living insects were repeated three times. These repetitive visits further allow for an analysis with the software PRESENCE, which gives an estimate of general occurrence of a species in the area in a point-based sense. PRESENCE generates a detection function based on multiple visits under the assumption that the population is closed, meaning that no animals leave or enter the area of interest between several visits. Repetitions were not realized for the add-on protocol for DISTANCE sampling line transects. VEGETATION & ENVIRONMENT Additionally, basic data about the plot environment was collected. If at all possible, the GPS coordinates were noted. A plot picture and a canopy picture were taken with a digital camera to give a general impression of the area and also allow for an analysis of light conditions in other studies on the same data set, e.g. remote sensing investigations. All pictures are available from the authors. A short description of the ecosystem was noted as well (for example: pasture, forest interior, forest edge). Height and diameter at breast height were recorded for all trees within 5 m of plot centre. Estimates were noted regarding canopy cover percentage, understory cover percentage, shrub cover percentage (at 1.35 m height), bare soil percentage, duff coverage percentage, leaf browsing percentage, and number of flowers visible. The thickness of epiphytes, hemi-epiphytes, mosses and lichen was noted in categories (none, low, medium, high). Presence/absence of identified plant species or plant families was noted, as well as remarkable animal tracks (e.g. land crab holes, large mammal tracks, etc). Those are referred to as “Covariates 1 to 32” in all six study areas, but the actual meaning is different in each. Detailed lists and the full protocol are available from the authors. The covariates can have one of four effects: 1. affecting habitat quality (presence/ absence of a species) 2. affecting detectability (detection/ non-detection of a species that is present) 3. affecting both of the above 4. affecting none of the above.
Methodology_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Buckland et al
Publication_Date: 2001
Title:
Introduction to DISTANCE sampling
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Required element.
Methodology_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: MacKenzie et a.
Publication_Date: 2005
Title:
Occupancy estimates and modeling
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Required element.
Methodology_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Breiman
Publication_Date: 2001
Title:
Statistical modelling: the two cultures
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Required element.
Methodology_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Huettmann & Nemitz
Publication_Date: Unknown
Title:
Biodiversity GRID Sampling Protocol
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Required element.
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
No process steps have been described for this data set
Process_Date: Unknown
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Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:
Indirect_Spatial_Reference_Method:
Location names
Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: Point
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Spatial_Reference_Information:
Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Geographic:
Latitude_Resolution: 0.001
Longitude_Resolution: 0.001
Geographic_Coordinate_Units: Decimal degrees
Geodetic_Model:
Horizontal_Datum_Name: World Geodetic System of 1984
Ellipsoid_Name: World Geodetic System of 1984
Semi-major_Axis: 6378137
Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 298.25722210088
Vertical_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Depth_System_Definition:
Depth_Datum_Name: Local surface
Depth_Distance_Units:
Depth_Encoding_Method:
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Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Detailed_Description:
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: Vegetation
Entity_Type_Definition:
Vegetation for each plot
Entity_Type_Definition_Source:
Falk Huettmann, EWHALE lab
Detailed_Description:
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: Birds
Entity_Type_Definition:
Bird detection information for each plot
Entity_Type_Definition_Source:
Falk Huettmann, EWHALE lab
Detailed_Description:
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: Trapping Webs
Entity_Type_Definition:
Distance Sampling Trapping Web for insects
Entity_Type_Definition_Source:
Falk Huettmann, EWHALE lab
Detailed_Description:
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: DistanceTransectCrossProfile
Entity_Type_Definition:
Distance Sampling Cross Profile of the study area
Entity_Type_Definition_Source:
Falk Huettmann, EWHALE lab
Detailed_Description:
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: Explanation
Entity_Type_Definition:
Short details of the data and Excel sheet
Entity_Type_Definition_Source:
Falk Huettmann, EWHALE lab
Detailed_Description:
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: Monkeys
Entity_Type_Definition:
Monkey Surveys
Entity_Type_Definition_Source:
Falk Huettmann
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Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Falk Huettmann, Rebecca Thome and Amy Milin
Contact_Organization: EWHALE lab- Biology and Wildlife Dept., Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks
Contact_Position: Associate Professor
Contact_Address:
Address_Type:
Address: 419 IRVING I
City: Fairbanks
State_or_Province: Alaska
Postal_Code: 99775-7000
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: +1 907 474 7882
Contact_TDD/TTY_Telephone: +1 907 474 7959
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: fhuettmann@alaska.edu
Distribution_Liability:
The authors and the hosting institutions shall not be held liable for improper or incorrect use of the data described and/or contained herein. These data and related graphics (i.e. GIF or JPG format files) are not legal documents and are not intended to be used as such. The information contained in these data is dynamic and may change over time. The data are not better than the original sources from which they were derived. It is the responsibility of the data user to use the data appropriately and consistent within the limitations of geospatial data in general and these data in particular. The related graphics are intended to aid the data user in acquiring relevant data; it is not appropriate to use the related graphics as data. The authors give no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability, or completeness of these data. It is strongly recommended that these data are directly acquired from an NPS server and not indirectly through other sources which may have changed the data in some way. Although these data have been processed successfully on computer systems at the University of Alaska, no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the utility of the data on other systems for general or scientific purposes, nor shall the act of distribution constitute any such warranty. This disclaimer applies both to individual use of the data and aggregate use with other data.
Standard_Order_Process:
Fees: None
Custom_Order_Process:
Contact authors, or Maderas Rainforest (online)
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Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20081008
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Falk Huettmann
Contact_Organization: EWHALE lab- Biology and Wildlife Dept., Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks
Contact_Address:
Address_Type:
Address: 419 IRVING I
City: Fairbanks
State_or_Province: Alaska
Postal_Code: 99775-7000
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: +1 907 474 7882
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: fhuettmann@alaska.edu
Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Biological Data Profile of the Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Access_Constraints: None
Metadata_Use_Constraints:
None
Metadata_Security_Information:
Metadata_Security_Classification_System: NA
Metadata_Security_Classification: Unclassified
Metadata_Security_Handling_Description:
NA
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